Tag Archives: תמים תהיה
Shabbos 156 Astrology, Mazal, and acceptable risk-taking
In an earlier post (Shabbos 129,) I promised to find an opportunity to deal with a fascinating sugya on that daf that I was not able to cover at the time.
The grand finale of Shabbos is here, and with it, on the penultimate daf, the opportunity has come to revisit the question of mazal and astrology, as well as its relevance to risk-taking.
First, lets go back to 129b, where The Gemara rules that for astrological reasons, it is dangerous to let blood on a Tuesday, and one should thus avoid it.
This is because “Mars” is dominant during even hours of the day, and the combination of the dangers of זוגות (pairs- see Pesachim 109b) and Mars makes it a particularly dangerous time for doing so.
The Gemara points out that it is equally dangerous on a Friday, but notes that seeing as it has become the norm for people to do so, it is not forbidden, and we apply the verse שומר פתאים השם”“ -Hashem protects the foolish.” )Tehillim 116/7)
Rashi explains that people are under pressure to let blood before shabbos, seeing as the large fish eaten on shabbos helps to replenish one’s blood supply, and they thus accepted the risk, which made it permitted.
This “leniency” has been applied by various later authorities to permitted engaging in activities with some level of risk, if the population of a whole has voted with their feet that the need for the activity outweighs the risk, and rely on the fact that Hashem will or at least might protect them.
In truth, it is clear from the everyday life described in the Mishna and Gemara that people took calculated risks in their day to day life, particularly while pursuing their livelihoods, and going to study Torah or perform other mitzvos, and with the exception of situations of clear and definite danger, this was barely criticized.
We find that workers said Shema while working up in trees or building platforms )Brachos 16a), and do not see any suggestion that they should not take the risk of working in such risky positions in the first place.
Although travel in general, and going out to sea in particular, was fraught with dangers, to the point that one said a prayer for a safe journey and sometimes said a special blessing of thanks (הגומל) when returning, we do not see any prohibitions against doing so.
Yet using our case of the bloodletting as a precedent is extremely problematic, as it assumes that danger or assumed danger based on astrological factors is equivalent to physically observable danger.
While it is true that even “rationalists” such as Meiri (Shabbos 129b) seem to have believed that certain effects of the stars alignment were not supernatural at all but simply a part of nature, it would be almost impossible to entertain such a suggestion in light of today’s scientific knowledge.
Even if we assume that Chazal, or some Chazal truly believed in the power of the stars, and even if we ourselves followed that belief to the extent that Chazal seem to have permitted doing so, it is clear from the Gemara that the concern regarding blood-letting had to do with the general concern of things that go in זוגות (pairs,) and Chazal were very clear that in times where people were not concerned about them, their effect was also negligible (see Pesachim 110b.)
It therefore stands to reason that if דשו בו רבים (the people have ignored the concern,) the danger is simply not there anymore, and one can then rely on Hashem’s protection (why the term “fools” would then relevant, does admittedly required some explanation.)
However, with physically observable dangers, simply ignoring them does not make them go away at all- the risk remains the same.
As such, although for the others reasons mentioned above, it is clear that society-drawn lines in acceptable risk-taking certainly are a factor, it seems less clear that this particular case where the principle of דשו בו is mentioned could serve as any real proof for the existence of this line and where it be drawn
Despite the above, this sugya and its idea of כוין דדשו בו רבים, שומר פתיים ה seems to have become the gold standard for evaluating what risks are acceptable as part of daily life, and those of us who prefer to see the entire idea as metaphorical, in the line of Rambam’s usual methodology with such things, could perhaps simply relate to the entire precedent as metaphorical for publically accepted risk.
Our daf begins its long discussion on the subject of “mazal” with the views of two Amoraim, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and Rabbi Chanina, who both hold that the time that a person is born plays a major impact on their personality and their future.
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi held that the day of the week on which a person was borne was the critical factor, whereas Rabbi Chanina held that it was the star/planet dominant at the time of birth that was significant.
One often-quoted example of the later, that has its origins here, is the idea that someone born under מאדים (Mars -the red planet) will be predisposed to spilling blood (note the reference to red or blood in its name.)
Rav Ashi comments that such a person could either be blood-letter, a thief (according to Rashi, a robber who kills people), a butcher, or a moheil.
Even if we follow a literal reading of this passage, It seems to follow from this comment that although Rabbi Chanina believes that a person’s personality is predetermined by his “mazal,” what he does with his personality traits is not preordained, and he may choose to use them for good or for bad. (I have taken the liberty of assuming that this is Rav Ashi’s intention, though it is also possible that Rav Ashi is not suggesting that a person has a choice in the matter, but simply that these are all possible things that a person’s fate might lead him to become if he was borne under this “mazal.”
The Gemara narrates how the leading Amora of his time, Rabbah, had objected to this claim of Rabbi Chanina, pointing out that he was borne under the mazal of “mars” and was certainly not a spiller of blood.
His student, Abaya, retorted that Rabbah himself had also punished and killed before.
The simple meaning of this is that it is a reference to Rabbah’s role as a judge, which we know from a recent daf (Shabbos 153) was known to have been particular uncompromising, to the point that the people of his home-town Pumbedita “hated” him.
Although there was no capital or corporal punishment in Rabbah’s time, and his main authority was in monetary matters and verbal rebuke (the later being stressed by Rashi over there,) it is possible that he made use of the permission given to the courts to hand out exceptional capital or corporal sentences when deemed necessary for the stability of society, a rule formulated (Sanhedrin 46a) as ב”ד מכין ועונשין שלא מן התורה .
Another possibility is that this refers to the case (Megila 7b) where Rabbah, while making a Purim feast together with Rabbi Zeira, attempted to follow the reported dictum לאבסומי בפוריא(to drink wine on Purim to the point of inability to distinguish between “cursed is Haman” and “blessed is Mordechai.”)
The Gemara related how he became inebriated, and in his stupor, slaughtered Rabbi Zeira, his co-host.
The Rabbis prayed for mercy and Rabbi Zeira survived (or came back to life, depending how the story is interpreted), but the lesson was learnt the next year by Rabbi Zeira, who declined Rabbah’s invitation to feast together once more.
If this is what Abaya was referring to, it could be that even if a person is able through his sheer greatness to completely control his predetermined personality to the point that it does not impact at all on his actions, it remains dormant and asserts itself at times when the person is under the influence.
It might be possible for those who reject there being any truth in astrology (the Rambam being the prime example) to interpret this entire sugya symbolically, and say that all reference to the stars or days of the week are simply metaphors for a person’s innate personality traits, which people cannot totally change, but can certainly direct towards good or bad.
However, the precise wording of the statements, and the continuation of the sugya, which brings various stories to illustrate the power of astrology and of tzedakah to change it, does seem to show that Chazal did indeed believe in it, even if they held it was forbidden to base one’s actions on it.
The Gemara brings the statement of Rabbi Chanina, that “mazal causes wisdom, mazal wealth, and יש מזל לישראל (there is Mazal for Israel.)
In contrast, Rabbi Yochanan rules in contrast that there is no “mazal” for Israel, a position that Rav Shmuel, and even Rabbi Akiva himself are then shown to have accepted.
The view of Rabbi Yochanan that “there is no mazal for Israel “could initially be understood in various ways:
i. The Jewish people simply do not believe in the power of astrology at all.
ii. The idea of Mazal does apply to people in general, but the Jewish people are completely unaffected by it.
iii. Although everyone can be affected by Mazal, the Jewish people are able to change their mazal through repentance and good deeds, such as giving צדקה (charity.)
The stories brought from Rav, Shmuel, and Rabbi Akiva respectively to illustrate and support the view of Rabbi Yochanan are both examples of cases where a Jewish person’s “astrology” predicted something, yet it did not come to pass.
Rav interprets the passuk ויוצא אותו החוצה (and he took him outside) to mean that Hashem took Avraham Avinu out of the limits of his astrological fate, which involved remaining childless, by realigning the stars so that they should let him have a child.
By deriving from this statement that Rav agrees with Rabbi Yochanan’s rule of אין מזל לישראל, the Gemara indicates that Rabbi Yochanan accepts the power of the stars, believes that even Jews are technically subject to it,
yet holds that when they deserve it, Hashem intervenes and changes their “mazal” in their favor.
The next story, involves the leading Amora Shmuel sitting next to a lake with Avleit, identified by Rashi as a non-Jewish wise-man and astrologer.
Some people headed into the lake, and Avleit predicted based on the stars, that a specific one of them would not return, but would be attacked by a snake and die.
Shmuel commented that if the man was Jewish, he would return safely.
The man indeed returned as Shmuel predicted, and they found a snake inside his bag, cut into two!
Shmuel asked him what he done to merit this miracle this, and replied by describing an act of chesed he had done.
Shmuel went out and used this case to apply the passuk וצדקה תציל ממות – “charity saves from death.” )Mishlei 10/2;11/4)
It seems clear from this story that Shmuel also believed that Jews were also subject to the power of the stars, but they could bypass this power through their good deeds!
A look at the final story, the famous case of Rabbi Akiva’s daughter on her wedding day, seems to reveal the same conclusion. As such, it seems clear why Rashi chose this rather limited way of explaining the idea of אין מזל לישראל.
Putting all the modern scientific evidence against the entire concept of the star’s power aside for a moment, the biggest issue with this belief comes from our own classical sources.
The Torah) Devarim 18/1) warns us against superstitious beliefs and practices, including מעונן , which is identified among others things (Sanhedrin 65b) as believing that certain times are good for certain things, something that sounds a lot like astrology.
Those who take a more literal view of our sugya need to address this prohibition, and show somehow that astrology is different, perhaps because it is a part of nature itself and not supernatural, an idea entertained at least for a short time by the Meiri (Shabbos 129b.)
Those who take this prohibition at face value and hold that it refers to astrology might differentiate between believing in the power of the stars, which is legitimate, and basing one’s actions on what they predict, which is not. They could hold that because a Jew is able to change his mazal through his actions, he needs to do exactly that rather than follow what his mazal says blindly.
This view is extremely problematic, seeing as a person has no way of knowing whether his deeds will be good enough to merit this intervention, and it is forbidden in any case to rely on miracles- after all, even Yaakov Avinu was afraid of Esav, according to Chazal (Brachos 4a) because he feared that his sins would stop him from meriting the divine protection promised to him.
How could one then rely on Hashem’s intervention and perform an action against his astrologer’s advice?
Alternatively, one could assume that the halachic sugyas that deal with the prohibition against astrology are the עיקר שמעתתא (main sugyos) and the largely aggadic sugyos that seem to assume the truth of astrology to be secondary, either viewing them as completely non authoritative or interpreting them symbolically in a way that they do not contradict the Torah’s disdain for such beliefs.
The former would be controversial, to say the least, and the later would require a great degree of creativity.
I should also be noted that the earlier sugya on daf 129b seems far from aggadic and seems to involve a halachik discussion as do some other sugyos on the subject.
Whereas Rashi on our daf and the Ramban (Devarim 18/9-12) clearly seem to accept the legitimacy of astrology in some way, taking the more narrow interpretation of Rabbi Yochanan’s dictum, a reading of the Rambam’s views on the subject (A.Z. 11/9 for example) will reveal that he takes the approach of completely negating any truth in astrology.
Identifying which approach he takes to dealing with all these sugyos that assume its truth, takes us out of the scope of this post!
These posts are intended to raise issues and stimulate further research and discussion on contemporary topics related to the daf. They are not intended as psak halacha.
Shabbos 75 Is Astrology kosher?
This daf is filled with so many important principles of shabbos, and touches on מלאכה שאינה צריכה לגופא, דבר שאין מתכוין, מתעסק, פסיק רישיה דניחא ליה the definition of מכה בפטיש and SO much else.
I decided to follow one of the diversions the Gemora takes, in its signature fashion, and discuss the fascinating topic of מחשב תקופות ומזלות, calculating the periods of the year and the constellations.
We start with the statement of Bar Kapra that anyone who is able to calculate the periods of the year and the constellations, תקופות ומזלות , and does not do so, is the subject of the verse “they never looked at the actions of Hashem and never saw his handiwork” ( Yeshayahu 5).
In context, the Navi is criticizing the way the people at the time focused on materialism, wining and dining, but failed to focus on the actions and wonders of Hashem.
Many a derosho can be said about this verse and exactly what it means , but Bar Kapra is interpreting it to refer to the fact that they never studied about the wonders of the cosmos, which he seems to see as the greatest example of the glory of Hashem’s works and creation .
The Gemara then brings the ruling of Rabbi Yochanan that it is a mitzva to perform these calculations , and that this is ” for it is your wisdom and understanding in the eyes of the nations ” referred to in the Torah ( Devarim 4/6.)
The understanding is that whereas the other nations might not appreciate the Jewish people through other aspects of the Torah, these complex laws and calculations were something that would clearly impress them as well, and lead to Kiddush Hashem.
What exactly is this wisdom referring to?
Rashi seems to understand that this does not refer to calculations of the calendar per se, but to astrological calculations based on the zodiac which were able to predict future events, such as whether it would be a rainy year.
Rashi seems to have believed, or at least believed that Chazal believed, that the alignment of the constellations has a causative effect on the world , and that calculating and predicting these effects is not a superstitious forbidden practise that belongs to the pagan world , but is actually a real wisdom included in Torah.
He explains that when the other nations see how much better we are at predicting these things(seemingly through a Torah prism), they will be truly impressed.
This view, however, seems to be extremely problematic given the biblical prohibition of לא תעוננו (Vayikra 19/26;Devarim 18/1) which Chazal (Sanhedrin 65b) understood to prohibit calculating auspicious times.
While it seems clear from here that Rashi doesn’t believe that this prohibition applies to calculating them using the Torah based tools of astrology, and also believes that this IS very effective , we all know that Rambam is NOT of this view .
The Rambam clearly says (A.Z. that the prohibition includes astrology and also clearly says that there is absolutely no causative power in such things. (see hilchos avoda zara 11/8-9 his famous epistle on Astrology, as well as the Moreh.)
As such, the Rambam must understand this Gemara as talking about something completely different.
Indeed, with today’s scientific knowledge, it is hard to imagine that the nations of the world would admire us for believing in the zodiac.
As predicted, the Rambam (Yesodei haTorah 3) describes this wisdom as understanding the movement of the various spheres, in other words, the science of astronomy, which of course forms the basis of our calendar.
This for Rambam is the ultimate form of appreciation of Hashem’s works , when one understands the complexity and sheer scale of creation at an astronomical scale , and our superior knowledge in this regard is truly a Kiddush Hashem in the eyes of the nations .
We see how a very important mitzva on this daf is understood in two completely opposite ways by two Rishonim with different approaches – according to Rashi, it is the study of the zodiac and fate, something which according to Rambam is both forbidden and utter nonsense, whereas according to Rambam, it is the science of Astronomy, something that many in the frum world today might find equally trivial!
Of course, it is tempting in our modern and scientific word to embrace the view of Rambam and his school and reject the view of Rashi and others.
However, we are constantly learning so much about the world, and with the advent of quantum physics, and of course the “butterfly theory, where the furthest away item or event can have immense causative power , it is not impossible that certain aspects of astrology that Rashi and Chazal seem to have recognized might be found to indeed be part of the science of creation, and not mere science fiction.
I certainly tend towards Rambam here, and it seems clear that we need to apply at least the rule of ספק דאורייתא לחומרא but am not completely writing off that possibility.
As usual, much more to discuss, and many more sources to examine, but that is it for today.
Shabbos 61 Amulets for healing and protection
The Mishna tells us that one may not go out on shabbos wearing an amulet that does not come from an expert.
On the other hand, an amulet from an expert may be worn, and is considered a valid garment and not a burden.
The Gemara says that these rules apply to both amulets which have potions in them as well as amulets which contain holy verses from the scriptures.
The Torah, in Parshas Shoftim, prohibits various types of superstitious behavior, amongst them following or practicing omens, charms, calculating special times, magic, etc., and tells us to be “perfect with Hashem”- i.e. believe in and follow Hashem alone and no other supernatural powers or forces.
The Mishna and Gemara in Sanhedrin (perek 7) and describe these prohibitions in great details, and they are taken very seriously by all.
There is also a well-known dispute regarding the efficacy of these practices .
The Rambam and others of his school, appear to deny the existence of any supernatural forces in the world, and consider all these actions to be completely ineffective, in addition to being prohibited, calling them absolute foolishness.
On the other hand, the Ramban, and others mainly of the Kabbalistic school, believed that there are supernatural forces in the world , and that many of these actions can in fact work , but that as Jews, we are prohibited from following them.
The first Mishna in perek Cheilek lists someone who is “לוחש על המכה”, whispers holy verses to heal a wound, as one of those who have no share in the world to come .
The Rambam )Avoda Zara 11/12) , as is his way, explains that turning words of Torah into magical charms is the ultimate disgrace to Torah, in addition to the fact that they do not work.
So how does our daf make allowance for amulets with holy pesukim in them, on the basis that they have been shown to be effective?
Surely everyone would agree that even if they are effective, this is forbidden as per the Mishna in cheilek and the above prohibitions?
And how would the Rambam who believes that such things have no real affect at all, explain and rule on this explicit Mishna and Gemara which allows wearing such an amulet on shabbos?
In addition, amulets with potions in them should also be forbidden, based on the prohibitions of superstitious behavior, and according to Rambam’s approach, of course, also considered useless.
Please share your thoughts, and I shall try give some of mine in the comments section or in a later post, as this theme comes up again a little later in the perek.
These posts are intended to raise issues and stimulate further research and discussion on contemporary topics related to the daf . They are not intended as psak halacha .